Problem Based, Project Based, Inquiry Based, Flipped and, Blended/Hybrid Learning, so many questions about these instructional models. PBL –Problem or Project which is it? What is the difference between them all? Can you not incorporate them all into instruction and which of these instructional models is best for your students?
All of these instructional models connect together and represent the trend in education to redevelop instructional design to meet the needs of the students. Personalized Learning is an incorporation of these models and allows students to develop the skills our students need today. A common thread in education is the need for education to be student centered, development of critical thinking skills, problem solving and real world applications.
The use of Flipped, Blend. Hybrid learning allows classroom time to be repurposed for collaboration and project work and time for the teacher to work student’s individually (Bergmann, Sams 2014). This use of these models allows: “No longer is class focused on information dissemination, but instead, time can be spent helping students with difficult concepts and extending the learning to deeper levels (Bergmann, Sams 2014). The use of these tools allows for deeper authentic learning to take place.
“Authentic learning is a pedagogical approach that situates learning tasks in the context of real-world situations, and in so doing, provides opportunities for learning by allowing students to experience the same problem-solving challenges in the curriculum as they do in their daily endeavors.” (Spector, et al, 1900). Authentic learning environments need to provide collaborative learning where, for example, more able partners can assist with scaffolding and coaching, and where teachers provide appropriate learning support” (Spector, et al 1914). What is the best approach in authentic learning?
The term “Project Based Learning”, I think is used many times in the wrong context. Students creating a project about what they are or have learned is not truly Project Based Learning. Research shows Project Based Learning should be: students learning knowledge to tackle realistic problems as they would be solved in the real world, increased student control over his or her learning, teachers serving as coaches and facilitators of inquiry and reflection and students working in groups (Barron, B., & Darling-Hammond, L. 2008). I found Inquiry Based learning is really the center of it all. “The basic tenet of inquiry learning is that students arrive at an understanding of the subject matter by engaging in self-directed investigations” (Spector, et al, 121).
Bergmann and Sams (2014) web post, Flipped-Learning Toolkit: Getting Everybody On Board rings so true not for just type of model. Education and learning are changing, how do we get parent and student commitment and buy in. My 8th grade students comment. Tells us what we need to know”. How do we obtain the mind shift from our stakeholders? What can we do as educators to get the stakeholders on board? We know where we want our students to be and what learning should look like in the classroom and at home but how do we get students and parents on the train?
“Authentic learning is a pedagogical approach that situates learning tasks in the context of real-world situations, and in so doing, provides opportunities for learning by allowing students to experience the same problem-solving challenges in the curriculum as they do in their daily endeavors (Spector et, al, 1900). Isn’t this this the end game, in all the terminology, models and trends this is the outcome of what we want learning to look like? It is the combination of authentic learning with the support of Flipped and Blended learning would be the most model which allows, collaboration, individualized teacher focused and retention of content and improve students' attitudes towards learning (Strobel & van Barneveld, 2009; Walker & Leary, 2009).
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2014, October 28). Flipped-Learning Toolkit: 3 Ways to Take Your Students Deeper. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/take-students-deeper-flipped-learning-jon-bergmann
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2014, December 16). Flipped-Learning Toolkit: Getting Everybody On Board. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/flipped-learning-getting-everybody-on-board-jon-bergmann
Spector, J.M.; Merrill, M.D.; Elen, J.; Bishop, M.J. (2014). Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology. (4th ed.). New York: Springer Science + Business Media
Vega, V. (2012, December 03). Project-Based Learning Research Review. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://www.edutopia.org/pbl-research-learning-outcomes
Technology's Impact on Learning
The readings for this week continue to enforce my vision for teaching and learning. After reviewing the variety of learning theories, my vision is still strongly rooted in the constructivist approach and technology is an enhancement to this approach. We as teachers should be the facilitator by providing the topic and core information, and then the learning process should be multifaceted. Not all students absorb knowledge and learning in the same manner, so we as teacher must develop a variety of approaches, environments and experiments to allow the learning to take place. “The knowledge that each student constructs is not predictable from the individual pieces of information in the information landscape or the curriculum but emerges from the sum of the encounters and from the relations established by the student within the knowledge domain.” (Spector, Merrill, Elen, Bishop, 2014, p. 116) Our students may have access to the same information however, it is how they engage the knowledge will determine their individual learning outcomes.
Through the use of technology, we as teachers are allowed to develop a variety of learning environments which are multi-faceted to meet the student’s needs. These learning environments are developed to meet learning styles, varied path and pace, and provides student a voice in the development of these environments are well. Personalized learning environments are further developed through the use of technology in creating engaging and student centered learning experiences. “The question, however, is not if tools can contribute to learning but how instructional materials in various forms can enhance learning and allow the manipulation of the properties of instruction that impact learning (Lumsdaine, 1963).” (Spector, Merrill, Elen, Bishop, 2014, p. 106) Teachers must create learning environments with proper materials to ensure students have the ability to be self-directed learners in these authentic and engaged learning environments.
“Instructional design theories typically contain a taxonomy of learning outcomes, which makes it possible to classify the desired outcomes and then to select the most suitable instructional method or methods for helping learners to reach these outcomes.” (Spector, Merrill, Elen, Bishop, 2014, p. 186) I wonder though do we have a set outcome beyond basic information, would all students have the same outcomes if their learning experience was individualized? Not all experiences would be the same so would not all outcomes be the same?
In moving to student centered approach, teachers allow students to develop critical thinking and problem solving skills in a collaborative environment. The need for students to think and work creatively, develop problem solving skills, work in collaboration and communicate as outlined in the P-21 Framework to be prepared for life and work environments of the future, technology contributes and enhances to this learning. Technology enhanced learning environments allow students to actively seek resources for knowledge, tools and resources.
However, in a constructivist approach, students are part of the design process of their learning and their experiences to gain the knowledge. “Teachers and learners are co-designers of their learning processes which affect knowledge-construction and management as well as products that result from collaboration in distributed knowledge environments.” (Spector, Merrill, Elen, Bishop, 2014, p. 152) The P-21 Framework and the ISTE Standards for Students provide a design, support and expectations for these learning environments. While the material fully supports a constructivist approach, is does ask the same question I have which is: In the design approaches ranging from path and pace, voice and choice, inquiry and problem based learning where does the control start or stop?
International Society for Technology in Education. (2016). ISTE Standards for Students. Retrieved June 03, 2016, from http://www.iste.org/standards/ISTE-standards/standards-for-students
Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (n.d.). Framework for 21st Century Learning - P21. Retrieved June 03, 2016, from http://www.p21.org/our-work/p21-framework
Spector, J. M., Merrill, M. D., Elen, J., & Bishop, M. J. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (4th ed.). doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-3185-5.